Laryngeal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx (cancer of the larynx)

Hypopharyngeal carcinoma

The hypopharynx is the part of the pharynx that lies against the outside of the larynx and transitions into the food pipe. Tumors of the hypopharynx are usually squamous cell carcinoma, and are then called hypopharyngeal carcinoma for short. Tumors of the hypopharynx may also necessitate removal of the larynx.


In medicine, a shunt generally refers to a short connection between usually separate vessels or cavities. In association with voice prostheses, an artificial opening created between the wind and food pipes at the level of the tracheostoma is called a shunt, voice shunt or esophagotracheal fistula.

PE segment

Is the abbreviation for the pharyngo esophageal segment (pharyngo esophageal = PE). The PE segment is the part of the pharynx and of the esophagus that is used with the voice prosthesis to create the sound when speaking. The PE segment is a little higher than the voice prosthesis, and consists of the pharyngeal and esophageal membrane that the flowing air causes to oscillate. The PE segment can be made visible radiologically (video cinematography) or by a transnasal flexible endoscopy.

Shunt valve

Voice prostheses are also called shunt valves, as to be precise they do not create a voice, but are merely valves in a shunt which they then seal and thus prevent aspiration.

Esophagotracheal fistula

In medicine, a connection between the air and food pipes is called an esophagotracheal fistula. It can be congenital, occur later, or be created artificially. In association with voice prostheses, an artificially created connection of the air and food pipes on the level of the tracheostoma and which contains the voice prosthesis is called an esophagotracheal fistula or shunt.


In medicine, this refers to the inhaling / transfer of bodily secretions (saliva or stomach contents) and foreign firm and liquid substances (nutrition) into the respiratory tract. Aspiration can lead to a life-threatening infection of the respiratory tract (bronchitis) or lungs (pneumonia).


The medical term for cutting through a muscle. In association with voice prostheses, this either refers to the cutting of the constrictor pharyngis muscle to prevent a pharyngeal spasm or of the base of the sternocleidomastoid muscle to flatten the tracheostoma profile.


The medical term for cutting through a nerve. In association with voice prostheses, this usually refers to cutting through the pharyngeal plexus The pharyngeal muscles are separated on one side from their motor nervous supply to make talking easier and prevent a pharyngeal spasm.


Surgically created opening of the wind pipe through the skin of the neck.

Sternocleidomastoid muscle

The sternocleidomastoid muscle is one of two thick muscles used to turn the head. It is part of the neck muscles, and is rooted on the mastoid, the collarbone (clavicle) and the breastbone (sternum), which give it its name.

Neck dissection

In medicine, the term neck dissection refers to surgical removal of the lymph nodes of the neck. Its aim is to determine and remove lymph node metastases of a tumor. 


The trocar is an instrument that is used in surgery to make openings in a cavity (e.g. abdominal cavity, chest cavity, food pipe), sharply or bluntly, and keep them open by means of a tube. In association with voice prostheses, a trocar is used to create an esophagotracheal fistula. A trocar consists of the actual pointed trocar and a surrounding outer tube that is left in the opening that is created.