Therapy of shunt insufficiency

Over the recent years several methods to manage shunt insufficiency were published. Some of the are effective and explained here. 

Advantages and disadvantages of the various treatment options for shunt insufficiency

 Spacer treatmentInjection technique filler / growth factorSuture techniquesCustom-fit prosthesisSurgical shunt closure
For a dilated atropic shuntnoyesyesyesyes
For an infected necrotic shuntyesnonoyesno
Risksaspirationallergies to fillers, infection of fillers, granulomas etc.infectionlowrisks of surgery
Success ratemoderateshort-term – high, long-term – lowmoderatehighhigh
In-patient / out-patientin-patientout-patientout-patientout-patientin-patient
Patient comfortlowhighmoderatehighlow
Costsvery highhighlow, under general anesthesia highhighvery high